Open Access Original Research Article

Nephrotoxicity of Ethanol Extract of Xylopia aethiopica Fruit in Wistar Rats

Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Augustine I. Airaodion, Uloaku Ogbuagu, Ifeoma N. Nweke, Prince C. Unekwe

International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research, Page 1-16

Background: The use of Xylopia aethiopica fruit in folklore medicine is on the increase without regard to its toxicity.

Aim: This study was aimed at examining its toxicity on the kidney of Wistar rats.

Methodology: The fruits of Xylopia aethiopica were air-dried and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and ethanol as solvent. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was determined using standard method. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. Animals in groups A, B, C, and D were administered 129.62, 259.23, 388.85 and 518.46 mg/kg body weight of X. aethiopica fruit extract respectively, while those in group E received normal feeds and water only. The administration was done once daily for 28 days via oral route. Renal indices were determined using standard methods.

Results: Elevation in creatinine and urea levels was observed when experimental animals were compared with those in control group. This elevation was insignificant at a low dose of 129.62 mg/kg but significant (P<0.05) at higher doses of 259.23, 388.85 and 518.46 mg/kg when compared to those in control group. Administration of Xylopia aethiopica fruit increased total bilirubin concentration when compared with those in control animals. The increase was significant (P<0.05) when animals treated with 259.23 and 518.46 mg/kg extract were respectively compared with those in the control group. No significant difference was observed in the levels of conjugated bilirubin and bicarbonate. A significant increase was observed in the level of unconjugated bilirubin (except the group treated with 388.85 mg/kg) when compared with those in the control group. A significant (P<0.05) increase was observed in the concentration of sodium following the administration of Xylopia aethiopica fruit at all doses when compared with those in control group. Similarly, a significant increase was observed in the level of potassium (except the group treated with 129.62 mg/kg) when compared with those in control group.

Conclusion: The result of this study revealed that ethanol extract of Xylopia aethiopica fruit is nephrotoxic especially at high dosage. Therefore, its use in folklore medicine should be discouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Renal Function of Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced Diabetic Albino Rats Treated with Syzygium aromaticum (Clove)

Sammy Joshua, Omuruka Sweeten, Chukwu Christopher Ifunaya

International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research, Page 17-26

Diabetes a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fats and protein metabolism that is characterized by increasing levels of fasting and post prandial blood sugar. Syzygium aromaticum is a medicinal plant and well-utilized spice in the world. They are packed with essential vitamins, minerals and other nutrients essential for the body, eugenol being the most active ingredient.  This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low and high doses of Syzygium aromaticum on the renal function of diabetic albino rats and to ascertain its LD50. Thirty five male Wister rats with weight between 145 to 150g were equally divided into seven groups. The first group served as Negative control (group 1). The second group was the Positive control (Diabetic group). The remaining five groups were the treatment groups (3-7). Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally with 65mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) single dose. Group 3 (Diabetic group) treated with metformin (100mg/kg); Group 4 (Diabetic group) treated with low dose clove (250mg/kg). Group 5 (Diabetic group) treated with low dose clove and metformin; Group 6 (Diabetic group) treated with high dose clove (750mg/kg) and metformin for about six weeks. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture in appropriate heparinized and plain bottles for standard laboratory investigations for urea and creatinine. Plasma urea and creatinine was determined using enzymatic end point method under standard operating procedures. Statistical analysis was done using Graph Pad Prism Version 5.0. Results revealed that the STZ-induced diabetic group exhibited highly significant increase in the levels of urea and creatinine compared to the negative control group (p<0.0001) and treatment groups. Histopathological examination of kidney tissues of diabetic rats indicated morphological changes. However, their changes were overcome by clove treatment and the majority of the cells tend to be normal. Low dose clove group 5 (250mg/kg) with metformin decreased the levels of the analytes most when compared to the levels of the positive control group. For urea, group 5 gave a mean urea level of 4.25 ± 0.77 most highly significantly decreased from the control group 2 with mean urea level 23.80 ± 3.56  at  p < 0.0001 thereby yielding a better treatment result. In conclusion, low dose clove supplementation with metformin could be excellent adjuvant support in the therapy of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Bambara Nut on Renal Indices of Wistar Rats

A. I. Airaodion, A. U. Megwas, O. C. Njoku, P. N. Akunne, N. O. Oladosu

International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research, Page 27-35

Background: Bambara nut is a common household food in Nigeria especially among the Igbos of the South Eastern part of the country.

Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the effect of Bambara nut on renal indices of Wistar rats.

Methodology: The Songkhla 1 variety (red seed coat) of Bambara nuts were locally sourced in Obinze area of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The seeds were peeled and ground to a fine powder using a coffee grinder and extracted using soxhlet apparatus and methanol as the solvent. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were acclimatized for seven days during which they were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. They were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each. Rats in group A were administered distilled water while those in groups B, C and D were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of Bambara nut extract 12 hourly for twenty-eight days via oral route of administration. At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed under diethyl ether as anaesthesia and blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture. Renal indices were determined using standard methods.

Results: Investigation revealed that Bambara nut had no significant effect on the concentrations of urea, creatinine, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride and Bicarbonate at different administered doses when compared with those in control animals.

Conclusion: The results of this present study revealed that Bambara nut did not compromise the integrity of the kidney and thus not nephrotoxic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoglycemic Potentials and Toxicity studies of Garcinia kola Seed Tincture in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

N. C. Wokne-Eze, T. G. Davies, E. S. Bartimaeus

International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research, Page 36-46

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic potentials and toxicity studies of Garcinia kola seed tincture in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.

Study Design: This study is an interventional study.

Place and Duration of Study: A total of fifty one (51) adult wister rats weighing 180 – 200g were used. The rats weighed and grouped into 6 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (negative control) were placed on normal diet, while groups 2 to 6 were administered with 150mg/kg alloxan(Sigma-Aldrich) to achieve the animal model of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glibenclamide was used for this study. Treatments were given according to the groupings by means of oral gavage for a period of 21 days. At the end of the treatments, the rats were anaesthetized and blood samples collected for biochemical analysis. The heart, liver and kidneys were also harvested for histological analysis. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was estimated using the glucose oxidase method. Enzymatic method was used for the determination of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), whereas low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated from the friedewald equation. Reitman-Frankel method was used for the determination of liver transaminases, while phenolophthalein method was used for the determination of alkaline phosphatase. The heart, liver and kidney sections were stained with the standard haemotoxylin and eosin staining technique.

Results: The results showed significantly higher mean FPG levels (p<0.05) in all groups that received alloxan, as compared to the negative control. Extract of Garcinia kola combined with glibenclamide produced significant blood glucose-lowering effects in diabetic rats (p<0.05) when compared to the positive control group, revealing a potentiating drug interaction between the extract and glibenclamide. Troponin showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in all groups when compared to the positive control. There was a significant elevation (p<0.05) of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C in all groups induced with diabetes when compared to the negative control. HDL-C however, was lowered significantly (p>0.05) in all groups when compared to the negative control. Liver enzyme levels were significantly higher in diabetic control compared to negative control, except in groups 4 (glibenclamide), and 6 (alcohol). Histological analysis of the heart showed normal branching muscle fibres and peripherally placed nuclei in all groups. Liver sections showed normal histoarchitecture in the negative control compared to the diabetic control which had sinusoids filled with inflammatory cells. The treatment groups showed nearly normal liver architecture with hepatic artery and portal vein.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the combined treatment with the tincture and glibenclamide showed hepatoprotective potentials in addition to its hypoglycaemic effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exposure to Petrol on the Liver and the Kidneys of Auto-mechanics in Aba Metropolis South-East, Nigeria; Age and Duration Effects

Anya, Ojiugo Hannah, Nwachuku, Edna Ogechi, Bartimaeus, Ebirien-Agana Samuel, H. A. Waribo

International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research, Page 47-59

Aim: The aim of this study was assess exposure to petrol on the liver and the kidney of Auto-mechanics in Aba Metropolis, South-East, Nigeria, considering age and duration effects.

Study design: This study is a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State and Laboratory Department, JAROS Inspection Services Limited, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, between April 2018 and June 2018.

Methodology: A total of 204 samples comprising of 123 auto-mechanics and 81 non -auto-mechanics were assayed. Detailed information of the bio-data of the subjects including age, gender, medical history, health information and lifestyle were obtained from each participant. Blood samples were collected from for the analysis of serum urea and creatinine level and enzyme activity of AST, ALT and ALP using selectra PRoS. The effect of age and the duration of exposure were also determined.

Results: Statistics showed no significant variation in the mean urea (p>0.05) between the exposed and the control but, there was significant increase in the mean creatinine, AST, ALT, and ALP (p<0.05) in the exposed compared with the control participants. Out of the 123 of the exposed individuals, 29 (23.7%), 23 (18.6%), 4 (3.2%) and 40 (37.4%) had serum AST, ALT, ALP and creatinine level, above the reference value, for health respectively.

Conclusion: This study shows that the auto-mechanics are occupationally exposed to toxic chemicals and are prone to future hepato and renal pathology events.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preventive Effect of L- Methionine on Potassium Bromate- Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

M. A. Kanadi, R. Yila, M. P. Ibrahim, A. I. Yaradua, A. Nasir

International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research, Page 60-67

Aim: To investigate the preventive potential of L-methionine against potassium bromate –induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Study Design: Twenty male Wistar rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups containing five rats per group as follows; normal control, KBrO3 control, L- methionine control and KBrO3 group administered with 100mg/kg body weight of L- methionine for 48 hours.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.

Methodology: Serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid and electrolytes were assayed using standard methods. In addition, the following markers of oxidative stress were determined in homogenates of renal cortex and medulla: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Histopathological investigation was also carried out.

Results: Administration of KBrO3 significantly (P<0.05) increases the serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid and electrolytes however co-administration of L-methionine resulted in decreases in concentrations of these kidney function parameters. Furthermore, there were significant (P<0.05) decreases in the activities of CAT, SOD, GPx and GSH level and a significant (P<0.05) increase in MDA concentration in renal homogenates following administration of KBrO3 however concurrent administration of KBrO3 and L-methionine prevented all these changes in oxidative stress markers. Histopathological studies revealed severe necrosis and changes in glomerulus.

Conclusion: L-methionine could prevent nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress caused by KBrO3 and other structurally related compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Endogenous Antioxidants and Kidney Function Indices in Albino Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei and Treated with Sodium Bicarbonate

G. S. Haruna, M. H. Abdullahi, H. S. Abdullahi, S. Usman, J. M. Egbaloshu, T. O. Bamidele, M. Z. Zaruwa

International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research, Page 82-91

Malaria is an infectious disease that is transmitted through mosquito bites and is endemic especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current study aimed at evaluating the antioxidants and kidney function indices in albino mice infected with P. berghei and treated with sodium bicarbonate. Twenty mice were randomly divided into five groups of four mice each. Groups 1was the normal control, group 2 was infected with P. berghei, not treated groups (3, 4 and 5) were administered 84mg/kg b.w of sodium bicarbonate once, twice and thrice per day respectively for three days. Serum samples were collected and analyzed for MDA, GPx, SOD, CAT, GHS, Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3-, Urea and Creatinine following standard methods. MDA concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) higher in all the test groups compared to the control. GPx activity decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 2 and increased significantly (p<0.05) in group 5 compared to the control group. SOD activity decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 3 and increased significantly (p<0.05) in groups 2, 4 and 5 compared to the control. Catalase decreased significantly (p<0.05) in groups 2, 4 and 5 compared to the control. GSH increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the test groups compared to the control. Sodium ion was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group 2,3 and 4 compared to the control. Potassium ion was significantly (p<0.05) higher in all the test groups compared to the control. Chloride ion increased significantly (p<0.05) in group 5 and decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 3 and 4 compared to the control (75.37±0.707). Urea concentration increased significantly (p<0.05) in groups 2,4,5 and decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 3 compared to the control (37.60±0.707). Similarly, creatinine increased significantly (p<0.05) in groups 2, 4 and 5 but decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 3 compared to the control. This study revealed that infection of mice with P. berghei may have posed a massive metabolic stress on the kidney as indicated by elevated biochemical parameters although this could not be seen in the histological studies.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview on Common Viral Infections in Kidney Transplant Recipients

Adil Manzoor

International Journal of Advances in Nephrology Research, Page 68-81

The viral infections post transplantation are extremely important and guides us about the intensity of immunosuppressant and there monitoring guides us to fine tune the immunosuppression. Similarly the knowledge of the viral diseases post transplantation guides the transplant clinician to diagnose these diseases early and manage them before they become progressive.

Similarly blood transmitted diseases are much more common in resource poor countries. With lack of deceased donor program and paired kidney exchange in infancy we end up doing sensitised or ABO incompatible living donor transplants subjecting them to intense immunosuppressive regimens, which ultimately lead to the emergence of opportunistic viral infections such as CMV, BK and EBV.